Printers and Typewriters
The innovations in printing mean that scientific and technical information placed in books, magazines and newspapers can be transmitted more voluminously and cheaply, thus promoting inventions that raised living standards.
Writing is an ancient invention that has been used for at least since 3500 BCE. At first, clay was used as the writing medium, with symbols carved into wet, soft clay by a wooden stick. The clay was then left to harden. Paper was invented by the Chinese around 105 CE using cellulose from plants and cloth. The pen was made from materials such as feather quill and inks, dyes made from plants and insects. Following this invention, various types of immovable and movable-type wooden and metal block printing presses using paper were producing written documents and books in China and Korea. The Chinese invented block printing presses, where the entire page was cut into wood, before 868 CE, and this method was also used in Europe to print bibles. A Chinese named Bi Sheng invented clay movable type presses in 1041 CE. Elsewhere, most writing was by hand Eventually, paper spread to Europe, probably through Arabs, who had conquered a vast empire between China and Europe. However, most books and documents were made using leather either as parchment, grown animal skin or as vellum, young animal skin, making them too expensive for the general population. until the invention of the metal movable-type in Europe. In 1454, Johannes Gutenberg, a German, invented the movable-type metal printing press, invented by the Koreans in the same century. It was more efficient than Asian metal movable-type presses current at that time because European languages, based on a limited number of characters, are easier to print than the thousands of characters of the Korean and Chinese languages. Except for the required invention of paper by the Chinese in 105, this may be considered the greatest of all inventions because it allowed for cheap and rapid dissemination of knowledge, including other inventions and discoveries. From that time, the printing of newssheets, books and documents accelerated, literacy improved, and the transmission and storage of knowledge in a simple and inexpensive way was achieved.
The first American printing press is established by Stephen Daye in Cambridge, MA, in 1638. Schles 47
The first successful newspaper was the Boston News-Letter, which appeared on April 24, 1704. Carruth 40
In 1768, a Mr. Michaelson established the first type foundry in Boston, but it was inadequate to supply the many colonial printers with type. Schles 108
In 1856, Cyrus Chambers, Jr. of Pennsylvania invented a newspaper and book sheet folding machine. Carruth 255
In 1863, William Bullock was issued a patent for a continuous-roll printing press, which he installed in his Pittsburgh, PA printing plant. He began manufacturing his press in in 1865. This was the first printing press that printed paper on both sides of a sheet. Carruth 281
The first sucessful typewriter was made by Christopher Latham Sholes in 1867. Patents were issued to Sholes, Samuel W. Soule,and Carlos Glidden the next year. Carruth 297