Hydrolysis, Condensation, Hydration
Redox Reactions (Reduction-Oxidation Reactions) is a
name given to chemical reactions where electrons are gained and lost by atoms, ions, or
molecules. Oxidation means the loss of electrons, gain of oxygen, or loss of
hydrogen by an atom, ion, or molecule during a chemical reaction.
Reduction means the gain of electrons, loss of oxygen, or gain of hydrogen by an
atom, ion, or molecule during a chemical reaction. Note that in a redox reaction,
reduction must accompany oxidation and vice-versa,
since electrons lost by one particle must be gained by another particle to conserve total
mass. An example
of a redox reaction is the combination of hydrogen with
fluorine to produce hydrogen fluoride (e = electron):
The substance that loses electrons is called the reducing agent (reductant) and the substance that gains electrons is called the oxidizing agent (oxidant). The oxidizing agent is always reduced in a redox reaction, while the reducing agent is always oxidized.
Many biological processes are redox reactions. Photosynthesis includes the reduction of carbon dioxide into sugars and the oxidation of water into molecular oxygen. The reverse reaction, respiration, oxidizes sugars to produce carbon dioxide and water. Batteries function through redox reactions as do electrolysis reactions to separate metals and other compounds.
Hydrolysis, Condensation and Hydration Reactions Wiki n.p.Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a molecule is split into two parts by reacting with a molecule of water (H2O). One of the parts gets an OH group from the water molecule and the other part gets an H atom from the water. This reaction is distinct from a hydration reaction, in which water molecules are added to a substance, but no cleavage occurs. In organic chemistry, hydrolysis can be considered as the reverse or opposite of condensation, (dehydration) a reaction in which two molecular fragments are joined for each water molecule produced. As hydrolysis may be a reversible reaction, condensation and hydrolysis can take place at the same time. In inorganic chemistry, the word is often applied to solutions of salts and the reactions by which they are converted to different ionic species or to precipitates (oxides, hydroxides, or salts). In body metabolism, monomers become polymers by condensation. Polymers become small units or monomers by hydrolysis.